If you would like to become a professor at a German university, you have to use the time after completing your doctorate to attain “eligibility for professorship” (Berufungsfähigkeit). Depending on your subject, research focus and academic interest, this postdoctoral qualification phase can differ considerably.
In a first postdoc phase – as a rule, two to four years after completion of a doctorate – you will gain research and, if necessary, teaching experience at a university or a non-university institute, possibly also in industry. You can also use this time to produce your own publications, engage in further training at congresses and develop your soft skills. International research experience can also be gained during this period of further training and qualification.
Experienced postdocs can then meet the requirements for appointment to a professorship with work on a habilitation treatise, a junior professorship or evidence of other academic accomplishments, such as a leadership position in a junior research group or in industry.
Qualifications for a university professorship
The prerequisites for appointment to a professorship at a university are a completed programme of higher education, pedagogical suitability and a special aptitude for academic work (usually an outstanding doctorate). Proof must also be furnished of additional academic achievements. Different paths are possible in Germany:
Most candidates qualify for a university professorship in Germany by means of the habilitation process. Traditionally, habilitation generally includes the production of a habilitation treatise and an examination process that establishes the ability to teach in an academic subject. As a rule, this can also be achieved “cumulatively” – in other words, through the publication of several peer-reviewed essays in prestigious specialist journals.
A junior professorship has meanwhile become an established alternative to habilitation. The focus here is on early independence in research and teaching. Junior professors are allowed to supervise doctorates, have teaching obligations and play an active role in academic administration. These professorships are temporary, are assessed and only some offer a tenure track option. Junior professorships are especially common in mathematics and the natural sciences, in law, economic sciences and social sciences as well as linguistics and cultural studies.
Another path to qualification as a professor is the tenure track professorship. Similar to a junior professorship, it offers experienced postdocs independence and autonomy on equal terms with established university professors. Following a regular appointment procedure, these temporary professors have access to their own budget and appropriate facilities. After an evaluation of whether previously agreed work targets have been achieved, tenure track professors receive a permanent, and possibly higher level, professorship with tenure.
So far this model has only been implemented at certain universities. However, an expansion of this path is now planned: tenure track professorships are to be introduced throughout Germany by 2032. A joint federal and state government programme is providing one billion euros for 1,000 additional appointments.
Experienced postdocs can also develop their expertise in academic management and independent research and qualify for appointment to a professorship by leading their own junior research group. This is how excellent junior researchers at universities and large non-university research institutions prepare to take on positions of academic leadership. International research experience is a helpful and occasionally even essential requirement – for example, for becoming leader of a Helmholtz Young Investigators Group.
Academic achievement equal to habilitation can also be proven without a formal procedure, for example, through research conducted outside the university. A position in a research-oriented company represents a promising path towards a university professorship in engineering. Traditionally, many appointments here go to engineers with doctorates who research and work in industry. Working for a company is also a good qualification for appointment to a professorship at a university of applied sciences.
Professorship at a university of applied sciences
Universities are entitled to award doctorates and habilitation qualifications and focus primarily on academic research and teaching. Additionally, Germany also has universities of applied sciences (Fachhochschulen/Hochschulen), which take a more application-oriented approach. As a rule, a doctorate and several years of relevant practical professional experience outside higher education are required to qualify for a professorship at one of these institutions of higher education.