Facts & Figures
- © DAAD/Volker Lannert
- Biotechnology has become the basis and driving factor behind many applications in medicine, the food and feed industry and chemical industry.
Science and research in Germany are characterised by an excellent infrastructure, a wide variety of disciplines, well-equipped research facilities and competent staff.
Germany offers various forms of research locations: universities, non-university institutes, companies and institutions run by federal or state (Länder) authorities.
All in all, there are nearly 1,000 public and publicly funded institutions of science, research and development in Germany. They are joined by a large number of research and development (R&D) centres run by companies.
In selected fields or regions, these industrial and academic institutions pool their research and development activities in networks and clusters to work more efficiently and benefit from a higher level of knowledge in order to foster technology transfer and innovation. Furthermore, cooperation at European as well as international level has become an essential dimension of science and research in Germany.
Almost 1,000 public and publicly funded institutions for science, research and development, approx. 450 research and innovation networks and clusters
604,000 staff in R&D including over 350,000 R&D researchers
German higher education institutions maintain over 34,000 international collaborative partnerships with roughly 5,400 universities and research institutions in more than 150 countries.
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD): 84.5 billion euros (2014)
In 2014 the gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD) was over 84 billion euros with more than two thirds of this total spent by industry. Higher education institutions account for 18% of this spending and publicly funded non-university research institutions, for example the Helmholtz Centres or the institutes of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, invest 15% of the R&D total.