What would you think business and academia in Germany spent 79.9 billion euros on in 2013? The answer is: research and development (R&D). Such commitment makes Germany a world leader in R&D expenditure.
Who invested in research?
According to the Federal Statistical Office, the breakdown of investments made by business, universities and non-university research institutions is as follows:
- German business:
The largest share (67.1%) of total investment came from German business.
Universities provided 18.1% of the expenditure.
- Non-university research institutions:
R&D investments made by non-university research institutions increased significantly. In 2013, they spent around 11.9 billion euros (14.8%) on R&D, which is 4.6% more than in the previous year.
Which disciplines received funding?
The calculations of the Federal Statistical Office likewise showed that the investments made by non-university research institutions differed according to the various disciplines:
- Natural sciences:
At 5.7 billion euros, almost half (48.4%) of the total investment was made in the natural sciences.
- Engineering sciences:
At 3.1 billion euros, a good quarter (25.9%) was spent on the engineering sciences.
- Humanities and social sciences:
A further 1.4 billion euros (12.1%) was invested in the humanities and social sciences.
- Human medicine:
1 billion euros (8.8%) went into human medicine.
- Agricultural science research:
Agricultural science research received 0.6 billion euros (4.7%).