The German states (Länder) and municipalities act as research funding bodies and operate several research institutes that support state research activities. There are more than 150 institutes covering a broad range of research areas.
One example is the Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research Baden-Württemberg (ZSW). The state of Baden-Württemberg set up ZSW in 1988 as a non-profit foundation bringing together universities, research institutes and companies. Today, it is one of the leading institutes for applied research in the areas of photovoltaics, renewable fuels, battery technology, fuel cells and energy systems analysis. Some 230 scientists, engineers and technicians and 90 student assistants and trainees are currently employed at ZSW’s three sites in Stuttgart, Ulm and Widderstall.
Another example is the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), which is based in Kaiserslautern and has sites in Saarbrücken and Bremen and a project office in Berlin. It is one of the world’s leading research centres in the field of AI.
Facts and Figures
More than 150 research organisations
6,000 staff, including more than 2,700 R&D personnel; among them 1,400 researchers
Internal expenditure: 490 millions euros in total, for R&D: 220 million euros (2015)
Research activities are conducted in engineering, the humanities, health research and natural sciences.
State institutions that conduct research are primarily state-funded. More than 11 per cent of these research institutions’ revenues come from their commercial activities. The total budget in 2015 was approx. 490 million euros, with 220 million euros allocated to R&D.